Parents' Cognitive and Affective Interactions in the Character Development and Aspirations of Children Engaged in Labor in Butuan City, Philippines

Nelia S. Raganas, Catherine C. Pelaez


This research endeavored to determine the relationship between the parents’ level of cognitive and affective interactions and the level of personality development and aspirations of children engaged in labor at a certain urban poor area in Butuan City. There were 91 families who were involved in the study.. The findings revealed that most of the children are between ages 8-13 years old or at school age and are already engaged in labor. These children have high level of aspirations to someday lift their families from a poverty-stricken life. Their involvement in child labor is a starting point towards this dream. Findings also disclose that the affective and cognitive nature of parents’ interactions is highly manifested in the households. As a consequence, there is high level of moral and social development of the children. Despite their present economic predicament, they are able to maintain right attitudes towards other children and their elders. They socialize positively with others since they are secured of the love and acceptance of their families. Moreover, children with high level of aspirations tend to have high level of moral and social development. The affective and cognitive nature of parents’ interactions has significant relationship with the social development of the children. This means that the parents’ interactions with the children focused more for the development of their children’s life skills than on moral skills. This is particularly due to the aspirations to rise from their present economic desolation.


Child labor; Parents’ affective interactions; Parents’ cognitive

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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.